Western history stretches back in time to the Mediterranean and Europe, where it was influenced by Greek, Roman, and early Christian civilizations. The development of Christianity, religion and democracy took place in the West, and it was the first major civilisation to abolish slavery and enfranchise women. By the end of the 19th century, the world was dominated by a handful of great powers, including Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, and the United States. The West was also responsible for the discovery of astronomical objects, including the Moon, which was discovered by the astronauts in 1969.
A few centuries later, in the 1500s, Westerners used new technologies to expand their power and reach. They embarked on expeditions and discovered new worlds and mapped faraway shipping routes. This led to the Age of Discovery, a period in Western history known as the Middle Ages. However, Western history is far from over. Throughout this period, Western civilization has undergone numerous ups and downs. Here’s a quick overview of its most crucial periods.
During the Reformation, religious beliefs were reformed and Western societies began to separate. Many of the beliefs of the Catholic church were questioned, including the institution of the papacy and the belief that “good works” are essential to salvation. These beliefs were based on criticisms of the Church by earlier thinkers. These critics influenced Luther and the Protestant Reformation in Europe. These movements ended the religious unity of the Western world and gave rise to a number of major religions.
The American West was conquered by the Europeans. Europe gained Palestine and Transjordan. They gained Persia and the Middle East. Britain also conquered the Pacific islands. In Hawaii, the ruling class threw down the monarchy and established a republic. Most of the leaders were Americans. In 1893, Hawaii sought to be annexed to the United States. In the next few years, the British and French empires dominated the world.
During this period of Western history, the Renaissance began. It ushered in a new era of intellectual and scientific inquiry. It also encouraged appreciation of the cultures that came before. The Renaissance was centered in merchant cities such as Florence, Genoa, Ghent, Geneva, and Nuremberg, as well as on the European continents. Many of the greatest works of literature were written during this period. The most famous works of literature by authors during this period are Shakespeare, Hamlet, and Romeo and Juliet.
After the Napoleonic Wars, the Western powers began to expand. Britain needed new revenue after the Seven Years’ War, and it decided to send troops to fight the Spanish. However, the colonists protested the new taxes and a lack of representation in government. It was a time of conflict and uncertainty. Ultimately, the western world began to prosper as nations became more powerful. One of the major challenges facing Western history was the expansion of democracy.