The Development Of Western History
Western history can be described as the history of Europe as a whole. It has been dominated by many civilizations and periods such as the Roman Empire, Medieval period, Renaissance period, and the Middle Ages. It includes numerous European countries like England, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and other Latin American Countries.
Western culture traces it origins back to the Mediterranean and Europe. It is greatly connected to medieval Europe, ancient Greece, and later on with Medieval Christendom that emerged out of the Middle Ages. It was dominated by the Christian Church and it slowly absorbed all the lands from all over the world. Its influence has been deeply penetrated in every aspect of life starting from architecture to literature.
The European history is characterised by four dominant waves. All these are Dark Ages, High Middle Ages (the time between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries), Middle Ages (the period from around the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries), and Renaissance. These periods of time were marked by profound changes in all the aspects of the western society, politics, economy, and culture. All these periods gave birth to several highly influential, and outstanding European thinkers and artists.
The Dark Ages lasted for almost two centuries and was a time of profound ignorance, superstition, and decline of the power of the common people. This was a period of great instability and darkness since most of the Europeans were confined within their country or region. There was a very low literacy rate and many people did not believe in any worldly religion. They even believed in various myths, fairy tales, and religious writings. For them, the most powerful symbol was the cross.
During this period, there was very limited development of technologies. This is because most of the Western Europeans did not trade with each other. Instead, they had to develop weapons and fortifications to fight off against their enemies. Most of them, until the seventeenth century, lived an agricultural lifestyle. They used simple tools and created their own forms of currency.
As a result of the Dark Ages, most people in the Western Europe had either disappeared or they became Christians. The thirteenth century brought about the flowering of the medieval era. The fourteenth century witnessed the growth of cities in the west and during the fifteenth century; there was the appearance of the Norman French language, which eventually became the official language of the Western Europe. This is also the period of flowering arts and most significant discovery regarding the world map was made.